Our Lady of the Rosary
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Prayer of Saint Francis?
Easter Confession and Communion
The Great Depression (Continued)
Last Easter a new candle (not the paschal candle) on an angel shaped
candlestick appeared on the credence table. What is its purpose?
The candle is called a “Sanctus candle” or “Elevation candle.”
It burns from the time during Mass when the Host is consecrated until the last
person has received Holy Communion.
The ambiguity of its name results from the impracticality of the server
lighting the candle at the precise moment of the consecration, for he is
otherwise occupied. The Sanctus is a little too early and the
Elevation is a tiny bit late. In practice, the candle is usually lighted
a minute or two after the Sanctus, so that the server can return to his
position to ring the single bell at Hanc igitur. The candle is
not required, but we were fortunate to receive it from the estate of a
deceased parishioner, who received it as a gift from another former (but still
living) parishioner. The angel candle stick is a close match to the one
we have on the Gospel side of the tabernacle. The pair on the altar, appearing
female (Gospel side) and male (Epistle side) are reproductions of a pair made
by Michelangelo for the Dominican basilica in Bologna, Italy where Saint
Dominic is buried.
At Solemn Mass
the Sanctus candle is replaced by two candles or torches carried by acolytes.
Prayer of Saint Francis
Question: Is it true that Saint Francis did
not write the prayer which starts out: “O Lord make me an instrument of Thy
Lord, make me an instrument of Thy peace;
where there is hatred, let me sow love;
where there is injury, pardon;
where there is doubt, faith;
where there is despair, hope;
where there is darkness, light;
and where there is sadness, joy.
O Divine Master,
grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled as to console;
to be understood, as to understand;
to be loved, as to love;
for it is in giving that we receive,
it is in pardoning that we are pardoned,
and it is in dying that we are born to eternal life.
Answer: According to the WIKIPEDIA:
An article by Egidio Picucci on the 19-20 January 2009 issue of L'Osservatore
Romano says that the earliest record of the prayer is its appearance, as
“a beautiful prayer to say during Mass” in the December 1912 number of the
small devotional French publication La Clochette, “the bulletin of the
League of the Holy Mass.” In 1915, Marquis Stanislas de La Rochethulon,
president of the Anglo-French association Souvenir Normand, which
called itself “a work of peace and justice inspired by the testament of
William the Conqueror, who is considered to be the ancestor of all the royal
families of Europe,” sent this prayer to Pope Benedict XV. The Pope had
an Italian translation published on the front page of L'Osservatore Romano
of 20 January 1916. It appeared under the heading, “The prayer of Souvenir
Normand for peace,” and with the explanation: “Souvenir Normand
has sent the Holy Father the text of some prayers for peace. We have pleasure
in presenting in particular the prayer addressed to the Sacred Heart, inspired
by the testament of William the Conqueror.” On 28 January 1916, the French
newspaper La Croix reprinted, in French, the Osservatore Romano
article, with exactly the same heading and explanation. La Rochethulon wrote
to the newspaper to clarify that it was not a prayer of Souvenir Normand,
but he chose not to mention La Clochette, the first publication in
which it had appeared. Because of its appearance on L'Osservatore
Romano and La Croix as a prayer for peace during the First World
War, this prayer then became widely known.
Mother Teresa of Calcutta made it part of the morning
prayers of the Roman Catholic religious order she established, the
Missionaries of Charity. She attributed importance to it when receiving the
Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in 1979 and asked that it be recited. Margaret
Thatcher, who in that same year won the 1979 United Kingdom general election,
paraphrased the prayer on the doorstep of 10 Downing Street, surrounded by a
throng of reporters, as she set out the aims of
her Government after having “kissed hands” with Queen Elizabeth II and
become Prime Minister. Archbishop Desmond Tutu, winner of the 1984 Nobel
Peace Prize, declared that it was “an integral part” of his devotions. In
October 1995, President Bill Clinton quoted it in his welcoming speech to Pope
John Paul II on his arrival in New York to address the United Nations.
Nancy Pelosi used it when she became Speaker of the U.S. House of
Representatives in 2007.
Easter Confession and Communion?
Question: What is the “Easter Duty”?
Does it require a sacramental Confession in addition to Holy Communion?
Even if one can remember no serious sins to confess? (A.H.)
Answer: The Easter Duty is the obligation of
Catholics who have reached the use of reason (about seven years of age) to
receive Holy Communion at least once a year during the Easter Season. In
these United States the Easter Season extends from the First Sunday of Lent
(March1 this year) through Trinity Sunday (June 7 this year).
The obligation to make an annual Confession is separate
from the Easter duty. Canon 906 says that “All members of the faithful
of either sex after attaining the age of discretion are bound faithfully to
confess their sins at least once a year.” New (1983) Canon 989 says
substantially the same thing, omitting only the reference to “of either
sex.” If one were a legalist, he might claim that the canon did not
apply to one who was absolutely without sin, for then there would be nothing
to confess—but apart from Jesus Himself and the Blessed Virgin Mary, I
don’t suspect we have too many of those. If a man honestly could not
think of anything he did wrong during the course of the year, it would be
appropriate to make a general Confession: “In the past I have had
trouble with the sins of gossip and theft (or whatever), and I am sorry for
any sins I may have committed either in the past or more recently, but of
which I am unaware or cannot remember.”
I strongly suspect that a man who “honestly could not
think of anything he did wrong” is simply not making an examination of his
conscience, or never learned what is sinful and what is not. Modernism
has left a lot of people with the idea that as long as they are not
ax-murderers or adulterers they are without sin. (Some modernists
include eating non-union lettuce and emitting green-house gasses along with or
in place of adultery and ax-murdering.)
The Easter duty is separately prescribed in Canon 959
(new Canon 920). Obviously it assumes that the recipient of Holy
Communion is in the state of grace, and most people make their annual
confession just prior to their Easter Communion. Obviously, both
Sacraments are beneficial and ought to be received with far greater frequency!
The requirement for an annual Easter Communion goes back
at least to 1215 and the Fourth Council of the Lateran. It is included
in the Canons approved by Pope Innocent III:
On yearly confession to one's own priest, yearly communion, the
the faithful of either sex, after they have reached the age of discernment,
should individually confess all their sins in a faithful manner to their own
priest at least once a year, and let them take care to do what they can to
perform the penance imposed on them. Let them reverently receive the sacrament
of the Eucharist at least at Easter unless they think, for a good reason and
on the advice of their own priest, that they should abstain from receiving it
for a time. Otherwise they shall be barred from entering a church during their
lifetime and they shall be denied a Christian burial at death. Let this
salutary decree be frequently published in churches, so that nobody may find
the pretence of an excuse in the blindness of ignorance. If any persons wish,
for good reasons, to confess their sins to another priest let them first ask
and obtain the permission of their own priest; for otherwise the other priest
will not have the power to absolve or to bind them. The priest shall be
discerning and prudent, so that like a skilled doctor he may pour wine and oil
over the wounds of the injured one. Let him carefully inquire about the
circumstances of both the sinner and the sin, so that he may prudently discern
what sort of advice he ought to give and what remedy to apply, using various
means to heal the sick person. Let him take the utmost care, however, not to
betray the sinner at all by word or sign or in any other way. If the priest
needs wise advice, let him seek it cautiously without any mention of the
person concerned. For if anyone presumes to reveal a sin disclosed to him in
confession, we decree that he is not only to be deposed from his priestly
office but also to be confined to a strict monastery to do perpetual penance.
The Great Depression
from last month:]
Question: Were there moral aspects to the
Great Depression? A lot of
people suffered for well over a decade. Shouldn’t someone be held
responsible? Can we prevent such a thing from happening again?
● “Federal” Reserve Operations Begin ●
Reserve System began operations in November of 1914, just a few months after
the outbreak of World War I. In many people’s minds the Fed is
thought to be a part of the U.S. government—in reality it is a public
chartered cartel of private bankers. However, the relationship between
the Fed and the government is symbiotic. The government has granted the
Fed the exclusive right to create “money” and to set interest and reserve
requirements among the member banks, while the Fed creates this “money” in
response to the needs of the government. Since the “money” is
created in exchange for Treasury bonds, the government is able to finance its
operations through currency devaluation instead of direct taxation. The
increased money supply gives the appearance, but not the substance, of
prosperity, and is far more easily obtained than it would be through direct
taxation. The loss of wealth to those holding dollars is gradual, not
associated with any one government program, and not accounted for on
anyone’s pay stub.
War I ●
War often gives
the illusion—but not the reality (except for bankers and arms
merchants)—of prosperity. The nation unites to fully employ its
workforce and productive capacity to field a well equipped army.
Everyone has a job. World War I was particularly deceptive in
simulating American prosperity, in that for the years before the U.S. entered
(April 1917), our productive resources went to supply Britain and France, and
our agricultural resources grew in order to feed a war-torn continent unable
to raise its own crops and livestock.
maintained family ties to England and the English bankers. He was chosen
to sell British war bonds in the U.S.—and with the proceeds to procure
supplies for the British from the American market. A $3-Billion British
war debt to Americans insured an American interest in the British winning the
In October 1914,
President Wilson allowed a $500 Million dollar U.S. loan to the Allies of the
Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia). In spite of American neutrality,
the U.S. eventually loaned the Entente $2.3 Billion. U.S. loans to the Triple
Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary, Turkey, and (sometimes) Italy) were about 1
percent of that at $27 Million. Ultimately it came down to
economics—exports to Europe were too valuable to curtail. By 1915 the New
York Times reported annual exports of over $1-Billion.
On 7 May 1915 British Liner RMS Lusitania sunk carrying American
passengers (and, most likely, military supplies) and acting as a Naval
Auxiliary vessel) after warning by German Embassy that blockade running ships
might be sunk. Americans remained unwilling to enter what they perceived
as a squabble between the ruling families of Europe.
victories made it difficult to supply the Entente, portending a great economic
loss to American investors, farmers, and producers. In February 1916
Benjamin Strong of the Federal Reserve, Walter Lord Cunliffe of the Bank of
England, and the Bank of France agreed to coordinated inflation to finance the
In November 1916 President Wilson won re-election with the slogan “He kept
us out of war,” but by January of the next year was claiming to have proof
of German offers to ally with Mexico against the U.S. By April 1917 the
U.S. entered the war on the side of the Entente.
Of the roughly
$33‑Billion cost of war, $7.3‑Billions were raised through taxes,
$24‑Billions were borrowed through bond issues, $1.6‑Billion was
created by the Fed’s purchase of bonds. The $1.6‑Billion created
by the Fed (sometimes called "high powered money") was multiplied by
the fractional reserve banking system to approximately $11.4‑Billions.
The M2 money supply rose about 70 percent, from $20.7‑Billion in 1916 to
$35.1‑Billion in 1920.
American territory went untouched by the war, there seemed to be great
economic opportunities in the rebuilding of Europe and the re-tooling of
American industry for peacetime. The increased money supply gave most
people the illusion of prosperity. A responsible policy would have had
the Fed reigning in some of that money.
If we think of
inflations as “too few goods chasing too many dollars,” we can see how the
70 percent increase in the money supply would induce investors to fund
enterprises to boost productivity. But the growth in the money supply
had been artificial, not being supported by a proportional increase in demand
for consumer goods. This already bloated money supply would be further
enlarged (as we will see) in the 1920s, with additional inflation and lowered
interest rates, in an attempt to boost the British Pound relative to the
dollar. Both served as false signals for investors to buy the shares of
producing companies on the stock exchange, driving the stocks of producer
goods far out of proportion to the real demand of consumers.
cease-fire, agricultural production in the US grew at phenomenal rates in
order to provide food for war-torn Europe. American farmers cultivated
more acreage using modern machinery. With the end of the war and the
resumption of farming in Europe, large US agricultural surpluses severely
depressed prices paid to farmers at the market. The problem of farm
price supports would last all through the Depression, would return in the
post-WWII era, and remains today.
In January 1918
post-war Britain determined to return to the gold standard, and did so in
1925, insisting that the pound sterling exchange at £1.00 = $4.86, when in
reality the pound had dropped to lower than $3.50. Low production and
high unemployment, fueled by unrealistically high wage rates, government
funded unemployment compensation, and social benefits, would keep the pound
low until the Fed agreed to domestic inflation and consequent devaluation of
the U.S. dollar.
By the mid‑1920s, instead of decreasing, the U.S. money supply was made
to increase! An economic bubble was forming that would certainly
burst—not many years hence.
[To be continued]